In Appian's account there is no mention of Brutus, Pompey and Gaul. IV,1,1862. After the defeat of Antony in 30 BC, Lepidus’ son Lepidus the Younger was involved in a conspiracy to assassinate Octavian, but the plot was discovered by Gaius Maecenas. PLAY. Lepidus realised that in the following year his oath not to make war on the Sullans would no longer be valid because it was considered that it was binding only during the term of office (which lasted only one year). the Ultimate Decree) which called on the interrex Appius Claudius and the proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulusto take necessary measures to preserve public safety. Credits Lepidus agrees, on the condition that Mark Antony's nephew is also killed for being involved in the assassination. There is no mention of Pompey. Lepidus had a large force because many people had joined him as they hated Sulla's regime. However, he felt that Octavian was treating him as a subordinate rather than an equal. He also wanted to return the estates which had been confiscated from the men Sulla had executed and sold to private individuals (the proscriptions). He also wrote: "Lepidus ...[missing text]... into the mountains ...[missing text]... led back his army." Unlike the First Triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, this one was formally constituted. After killing many of the veterans and reclaiming their land, they defended their actions before the senate on the grounds that the rural population had been forced to do this after being driven from their homes. ", In Florus' account, which has survived only in fragments, after having destabilised the city when he was a consul, Lepidus went to Etruria, gathered an army and marched on Rome. , Asconius Pedianus and an entry in Livy's Periochae also mentioned a conflict in Sardinia. Learn. Lepidus was probably sitting next to Caesar at the time. ", The entry in Livy's Periochae also seems to indicate that it was Catulus who ended the conflict. Such a demand would destabilise Rome. She was related to Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. There are also accounts by Licinianus and Julius Exsuperantius which are based on information from Sallust's work which was still extant in their days but has had been lost.  Cicero wrote that he had not committed fraud in regard to the grain supply. Act Four, Scene One.  In 82 BC, during Sulla's second civil war, he fought for Sulla. He fled to Etruria. Julius Caesar. In Antony and Cleopatra, Lepidus will be treated more disdainfully by Antony and eliminated from the Triumvirate, probably by being murdered offstage. Actually understand Julius Caesar Act 4, Scene 1. Antony, Octavius and Lepidus have banded together in a counter-conspiracy to destroy the men who killed Caesar. Match. Antony. He sided with the aristocracy and was appointed as a commander of an army to confront Lepidus. It got them to swear that they would not let their differences escalate to the point of war. An excellent soldier if not the most intelligent of men, he becomes the third ruler of Rome along with Octavius and Antony after Caesar’s death. At the beginning Lepidus was confirmed in possession of both the provinces of Hispania, along with Narbonese Gaul, but also agreed to hand over seven of his legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius, who controlled the eastern part of Roman territory. Two members of his family had been governors in Sicily in 218 BC and 191 BC respectively. Lepidus joined the College of Pontiffs as a child. Exsuperantius wrote that a battle was fought on the coast of Etruria. During the Social War Lepidus fought in northern Italy under Pompeius Strabo, who was consul in 89 BC. This was probably in 81 BC. Lepidus and Junia Secunda had at least one child, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger. the Ultimate Decree) which called on the interrex Appius Claudius and the proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus to take necessary measures to preserve public safety. Why do they want Caesar's will? Caesar had dined at Lepidus’ house the night before his murder. Lepidus fled to Sardinia. Then he sent another letter âdenouncing the man after he had been put to death.â Meanwhile Lepidus went to Rome to demand a second consulship, âterrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers.â However, at that moment Pompeyâs letter which announced that he had brought the war to an end arrived. A friend of Caesar. Quantum Future Group Inc. Lepidus refused to support Cassius, who had created opposition to Caesar’s regime by his corruption and avarice.  When Sulla died in the same year, Lepidus tried to prevent the body from being buried in state on the Campus Martius. Lucius soon withdrew from Rome and Octavian retook the city. Neither writers mentioned any battles near Rome. 36 – 40). ", In one of the fragments of the work of Sallust which have survived, he wrote that there were suspicions that Lepidus was stirring Etruria to revolt and in another passage he mentioned a Tuscan (Etruscan) conspiracy. Julius Caesar Act IV. " The mountains Licinianus referred to must have been in Etruria. Caesar appears to have had greater confidence in Lepidus than in Mark Antony to keep order in Rome, after Antony’s inflammatory actions led to disturbances in 47 BC. Antony and Lepidus now had to deal with Octavian Caesar, Caesar’s great-nephew and adopted son in Caesar’s will. ANTONY In Florus' account, Lepidus also wanted to repeal Sulla's acts. Lepidus had mobilised support in a large part of Italy and sent Marcus Junius Brutus to hold Gallia Cisalpina with an army. Exit LEPIDUS. The senate voted him a public thanksgiving festival. In Julius Caesar, Antony is already thinking about getting rid of Lepidus… Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar. Weigel argues that these views are coloured by evidence that was in large part politically motivated, and that Lepidus’s career was no more perfidious or inconsistent than that of the other major players in the power struggles at the time.  In highly rhetorical passages, Sallust wrote that in Etruria there were smouldering fires of war and mentioned pillaging and burning. Please view our Learn. Messala is a minor character in William Shakespeare's 'Julius Caesar', but he is a loyal friend to Brutus. In this way he collected a large army ..." He also wrote that Lepidus "also made himself popular with the common people, as the defender of the people's freedom, by bestowing many gifts on them, both publicly and individually. LEPIDUS Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. He added: "when weapons were brought together and Catulus was not slower ...[missing text]... Where anyone seemed to be near him as he went beside the coast and the lake, he avoided the tops of the mountains. Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ ˈ s iː z ər / SEE-zər, Latin: [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.. They persuaded Pompey, who had several legions' worth of veterans in Picenum (in the north-east of Italy) ready to take up arms at his command, to join their cause. He expresses trust in Lepidus and is less disillusioned than Antony.  Pliny the Elder thought that he had the most beautiful house in Rome, with marble thresholds and shields with the battle scenes of Troy. He wrote that Lepidus decided to bring his army to Rome because he knew why he had been recalled, namely to be stripped of his military command. His father was the first leader of the revived populares faction after the death of Sulla, and led an unsuccessful rebellion against the optimates. In effect, it sidelined the consuls and the senate and signalled the death of the Republic. The brief alliance in power of Caesar and Lepidus came to a sudden end when Caesar was assassinated on March 15 44 BC (the Ides of March). He was gaining the upper hand, but Pompey arrived form Gaul and crushed his enemy. On 22 September 36 BC Lepidus was stripped of all his offices except that of Pontifex Maximus. 40.). https://cof.quantumfuturegroup.org/events/5663. Lepidus proves an effective tool for them in … Flashcards. His task was to find solutions which made it possible to call an election. In Plutarch's account, Pompey undertook a long siege of Brutus in Mutina. Antony considers him "a slight unmeritable man, Meet to be sent on errands." Octavius tells Lepidus that his brother must be killed. I do consent,— OCTAVIUS. Gravity. Brutus received a cavalry escort and withdrew to Regium Lepidi, a small town by the River Po, where he started to whip up further support for Lepidus. Write. Lepidus became one of the triumvirs partly because he had a large number of soldiers under his command and also because Antony needed him. Exsuperantius also mentioned a battle which was fought in Etruria. Plutarch wrote that it was not known whether Brutus betrayed his army or whether his army betrayed him and switched allegiance. page for info on data we are building upon. He is present at Caesar’s death, and flees from it. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Lepidus had been the first to land troops in Sicily and had captured several of the main towns. Caesar and the Senate were sufficiently impressed by Lepdius’s judicial mixture of negotiation and surgical military action that they granted him a Triumph. He started his cursus honorum as triumvir monetalis, overseeing the minting of coins, from c. 62–58 BC. Take the quiz to go over things like the role of Lepidus in the play and where he goes once Caesar is killed. Cassius and his supporters were allowed to leave and order was restored. He wrote that Catulus was more suited to "political than military leadership" and, thus, Pompey (Lepidus old benefactor) had to make a decision about who he would support. With that settled, Lepidus is sent to collect Caesar's will, to see if they can divert some of his money their way. Therefore, it might be that at the beginning of this conflict Rome had no consuls and that they were elected late on during the conflict or afterwards, Pliny the Elder wrote that when Lepidus died, his body was ejected from the funeral pyre by the force of the flames and he was cremated naked on other faggots. Write. Octavius has interacted with Lepidus as if he will have an equal share of power with them In what way is Antony's behavior toward Lepidus similar to his manipulation of the crowd at Caesar's funeral? However, he refused to restore the power of the plebeian tribunes which had been curbed by Sulla's laws (see article on Sulla). Julius Caesar - Act IV. They pers… Antony and Lepidus met with Octavian on an island in a river, possibly near Mutina but more likely near Bologna, their armies lined along opposite banks. Lepidus appears to have been genuinely shocked when Antony provocatively offered Caesar a crown at the Lupercalia festival, an act that helped to precipitate the conspiracy to kill Caesar. Appian was also referring to this when he wrote that Lepidus, wanted to restore the land which Sulla had taken from the Italians to gain their favour. Though he was an able military commander and proved a useful partisan of Caesar, Lepidus has always been portrayed as the weakest member of the triumvirate. The younger Lepidus was executed, but the former triumvir himself was left unmolested. 116–17; “The Defeat of Lepidus in 36 B.C.”, Acta Classica 17, 1974, pp. He typically appears as a marginalised figure in depictions of the events of the era, most notably in Shakespeare’s plays. These views are reflected in Shakespeare’s portrayal of Lepidus in Julius Caesar, in which Antony describes him as “a slight, unmeritable man, meet to be sent on errands”, comparable to a donkey required to bear burdens. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine : How to cut off some charge in legacies. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 121 â 77 BC) was a Roman statesman and general. They formed the Second Triumvirate, legalized with the name of Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power (Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae Consulari Potestate) by the Lex Titia of 43 BC. His wife Junia was, however, implicated. Use this worksheet and quiz to learn about Lepidus in Julius Caesar. Perpenna, who had joined the rebellion, went to Spain (with the remnant of the rebel forces) to avoid punishment and joined Quintus Sertorius in the Sertorian War. This usually happened when a town could no longer endure a siege. Why does Antony send Lepidus to Caesar's house to get the will? Florus thought that this would have been fair if he had done this without destabilising Rome. Lepidus as triumvir Lepidus negotiated an agreement with him, while claiming to the Senate that he had no choice. Mark Antony. (in short Antony has a paper with names on it and he says, "These many, then, shall die; their names are pricked" (4.1.1). Lepidus agrees to the death of his brother, and Antony agrees to the death of a nephew. During his governorship of Africa he promoted the distribution of land to veterans, possibly in order to build up a network of clients. He then retired to Sardinia, "where he died of disease and sorrow of mind.  The interrex was an official who was appointed when difficult disputes made holding elections exceedingly difficult. Antony, however, marched towards Lepidus’s province with his remaining forces. Angered by the betrayal, some inhabitants killed themselves and some set fire to the town. As soon as Lepidus has gone, Antony begins to talk trash about him. He drew his information from one of the speeches of Cicero. https://cof.quantumfuturegroup.org/events/5663. (in short "QFG") under the supervision of senior executive editor Octavian was the only surviving commander of the forces that had defeated Antony at Mutina (modern Modena). Gravity. , Julius Caesar, who was a Marian and had fled Rome during Sulla's persecution, returned to Rome because of the rebellion Lepidus was planning. Appian, The civil Wars, Book 1, Kessinger Publishing, 2009; Asconius: Commentaries on Speeches of Cicero (Clarendon Ancient History), Oxford University Press, U.S.A., 1993; Florus, Epitome of Roman History (Loeb Classical Library), Loeb, 1929; ASIN: B01A6506H0. Later historians were particularly critical of him for agreeing to the death of his brother Lucius Paullus, a supporter of Cicero. Lepidus was defeated in a battle at the Milvian bridge and then declared an enemy of the senate. With the triumvirs in possession of overwhelming numerical superiority, Decimus Brutus’ remaining forces melted away, leaving the triumvirs in complete control of the western provinces. Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar. He appears to have encouraged the Romanisation of Thibilis in Numidia and to have demolished illicit extensions to Carthage so that the formally cursed area of the old city, destroyed after the Third Punic War, was not built upon. Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. He started his cursus honorum as a praetor in 49 BC, was placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece,  and was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East. However, Cassius Dio hints that Lepidus helped Paullus to escape. However, the Periochae was a collection of very brief summaries of the contents of Livy's works and its editor might have missed references to Pompey out. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100?  We do not know when this happened. He typically appears as a marginalised figure in depictions of the events of the era, most notably in Shakespeare’s plays. However, Catulus and Pompey had already occupied the Milvian bridge and the Janiculum Hill. , Lepidus was elected consul for the year 78 BC. He became the third member of the Second Triumvirate, which was recognized in November 43 by the People's Assembly (Lex Titia). , Appian wrote that there was a conflict between the two consuls and their two factions (the Sullans and the Marians), and that the senate was afraid of both factions. Lepidus’s biographer Richard D. Weigel says that he has been typically caricatured by both ancient and modern historians as “weak, indecisive, fickle, disloyal and incompetent”. In Asconius there is a mention that Triarius fought against Lepidus in Sardinia. Hayne, Léonie, “Lepidus’ Role after the Ides of March”, Acta Classica, 14, 1971, pp. After Antony’s defeat at the Battle of Mutina, the Senate sent word that Lepidus’ troops were no longer needed. With all the details worked out, Lepidus is … He enriched himself during Sulla's proscriptions. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar’s house. This database, Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus are gathered with a checklist of the men they plan to murder for conspiracy. here? In an entry in the chronological tables of St. Jerome Hieronymus, it is stated that Lepidus was declared a public enemy.. I do consent— 2.  With regard to the land, before retiring from political life in 79 BC, Sulla confiscated land from the locals in Campania and Etruria to grant allotments to his veterans who then established a colony (a Roman settlement outside Roman territory). It sounds like Catulus went to Etruria to pursue Lepidus. The Chronicle of the Fall of the Roman Empire ANTONY He shall not live; look, with a spot I damn him. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (/ ˈ l ɛ p ɪ d ə s /; c. 89 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who formed the Second Triumvirate alongside Octavian and Mark Antony during the final years of the Roman Republic.Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar.He was also the last Pontifex Maximus before the Roman Empire.. Lepidus is the eldest of the three men, and he is, perhaps, the least ambitious. Lepidus was allotted the military command of the province of Gallia Transalpina. Though he was an able military commander and proved a useful partisan of Caesar, Lepidus has always been portrayed as the weakest member of the triumvirate. They are marking off names of men who are condemned to death. Octavian accused Lepidus of attempting to usurp power and fomenting rebellion. The Tragedy of Julius Caesar (First Folio title: The Tragedie of Ivlivs Cæsar) is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare first performed in 1599. Test. Modern writers have often been equally dismissive. Their works, too, have survived only in fragments. Lepidus continued to assure the Senate of his loyalty, but engaged in negotiations with Antony. What is ironic about this? Lepidus was defeated and went to Sardinia, "where he died of a wasting disease. We do not have any information about what he did when he was there. LEPIDUS I do consent--OCTAVIUS Prick him down, Antony. ) Lepidus was expelled from Italy and went to Sardinia. Holland, Tom, Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, Abacus, 2004, ISBN 0-349-11563-X, 316. However, he refused to join him because the outlook was less promising than he had thought and because he did not think that Lepidus was a good leader. , In Plutarch's account, Lepidus was opposed by his fellow consul, Quintus Lutatius Catulus, who was supported by the Roman senate (in the civil wars Sulla had been a supporter of the senatorial aristocracy against the Marians who espoused the cause of the common people). Lepidus was the son of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus; his mother may have been a daughter of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. He negotiated a deal with the rebel leader, quaestor Marcellus, and helped defeat an attack by the Mauretanian king Bogud. with an international group of editorial assistants. There two men had military commands as proconsuls. Lepidus thereafter administered both Hispania and Narbonese Gaul. He also had men who had taken part in Lepidus' rebellion and had fled to Sertorius in Hispania recalled. However, this was to lead to an ill-judged political move that gave Octavian the excuse he needed to remove Lepidus from power. , In 77 BC, when Lepidus had left for his proconsular command (he was allocated the provinces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul to the north of Italy), his political opponents moved against him. While no one says it directly, we can assume he had a hand in Caesar's death. 3 Educator answers. Read every line of Shakespeare’s original text alongside a modern English translation.  In the following year there were disturbances in Etruria.  Brutus eventually surrendered. There he rebuilt his forces and supplies and attacked merchant ships, which disrupted the grain supplies and caused hardship in Rome. Appian wrote that after a long resistance, he was let in the town by treachery. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar’s house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Spell. Ronald Syme called him “a flimsy character…perfidious and despised”. . Pompey then marched against Lepidus' rear catching him near Cosa, but although he defeated him Lepidus was still able to embark part of his army and retreat to Sardinia.. Spending the rest of his life in obscurity, Lepidus was apparently allowed to return to Rome periodically to participate in some senate business. Antony claims allegiance to Brutus and the conspirators after Caesar’s … Terms in this set (54) How does Antony react to the suggestion that his nephew Publius should be killed? He was recalled from his proconsular command. When he refused to return they declared him an enemy of the state and passed a Consultum Ultimum (a.k.a. Alain Gowing has also argued that his actions in Sicily, though “futile”, were no more than an “attempt to regain a position from which he had been unfairly thrust.”. Lepidus also agreed to the proscriptions that led to the death of Cicero and other die-hard opponents of Caesar’s faction. Lepidus had to plead with his former enemy Lucius Saenius Balbinus to grant her bail. The Senate instructed Octavian to hand over control of the troops to Decimus Brutus, but he refused. The next day Pompey sent Geminius to kill Brutus. , Lepidus was the first governor of Sicily under Sullaâs regime. Lepidus agrees that his brother can be killed as long as Antony agrees for his nephew to be killed. 3. Lepidus had in fact already reached the peak of his power. In 37 BC the treaty of Tarentum formally renewed the Triumvirate for another five years. , It can be noted that this conflict was fought the year after the consulship of Lepidus and Catulus (the consuls were elected annually). Lepidus was sent to negotiate with him. 59–65. Lepidus was among Julius Caesar's greatest supporters. focuses on a chronological and categorized collection of various environmental and social events that accompanied the Fall of the Roman Empire. Lepidus exits. Antony then sends Lepidus to obtain Caesar's will so that they can reduce some of the bequests. This remarkable volte-face had been designed by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, like Antony a former general in Caesar's army. He fell ill and âdied of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.â The Brutus in question was Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder, the father of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, one of the leaders of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar. When Antony attempted to take control of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) by force and displace Decimus Brutus, the Senate led by Cicero called on Lepidus to support Brutus – one of Caesar’s killers. Latest answer posted February 12, 2009 at 1:36:35 AM ANTONY. ANTONY This is a slight unmeritable man, Meet to be sent on errands: is it fit, The three-fold world divided, he should stand His brother was Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. Lepidus departs, and Antony asks Octavius if Lepidus is a worthy enough man to rule Rome with him and Octavius.
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